UMD Joins Forces with 11 Institutions in a New International Simons Collaboration “Ultra-Quantum Matter”

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Seventeen theoretical physics faculty across 12 institutions have established a new Simons Collaboration on Ultra-Quantum Matter. The team, which includes Victor Galitski, a Chesapeake Chair Professor of Theoretical Physics in the Department of Physics and Fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute, will investigate innovative ideas about how quantum physics works on macroscopic scales. This new effort will be led by Professor Ashvin Vishwanath at Harvard University and is supported under the Simons Collaborations in Mathematics and Physical Sciences program, which aims to “stimulate progress on fundamental scientific questions of major importance in mathematics, theoretical physics and theoretical computer science."

The Simons Collaboration on Ultra-Quantum Matter aims to explore unusual quantum mechanical behaviors arising in systems comprised of many constituents. This kind of matter is made from quantum particles (e.g. atoms and electrons) that interact strongly and feature robust non-local quantum entanglement, for instance. Such a system defies the conventional expectation that quantum effects tend to dissipate as the number of particles increases. The collaboration will primarily focus on developing theory around ultra-quantum matter and exploring pathways towards future technologies, such as devices that store quantum information non-locally and unconventional quantum materials.

Ultra-Quantum Matter is an $8M four-year award funded by the Simons Foundation and renewable for three additional years. It will support researchers from the following institutions: Caltech, Harvard, the Institute for Advanced Study, MIT, Stanford, University of California Santa Barbara, University of California San Diego, the University of Chicago, the University of Colorado Boulder, the University of Innsbruck, University of Maryland and University of Washington.

UMD Physics Offers Undergraduates New Research Opportunities with FIRE

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The University of Maryland’s Physics Department has joined The First-Year Innovation & Research Experience (FIRE) program through the launch of the Simulating Particle Detection research group. The group is run by Dr. Muge Karagoz in collaboration with two Experimental High Energy Physics faculty members: Professor Sarah Eno and Assistant Professor Alberto Belloni, both of whom are members of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider based at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

FIRE is a three-semester program with second and third semesters concentrating on research in a specific discipline. FIRE provides students with authentic research experience and a broad mentorship with the goal of influencing academic success and personal development. The FIRE Simulating Particle Detection brings undergraduate students from a wide variety of majors into the field of experimental particle physics, concentrating on the simulation of cutting-edge, high-energy particle detectors, such as the planned upgrade of the CMS detector.

In Simulating Particle Detection, students go through all aspects of conducting research. They start with a literature search on particle physics and detectors, as well as training on computing and coding. They then move on to data analysis and presentation of their results. For their research projects, they form teams giving them a chance to experience the pursuit of collaborative achievements. As a natural outcome of performing research, especially in the context of an international, big-data experiment like CMS, the students also learn skills such as adaptability, and strategies such as trouble-shooting.

The research group launched in the spring of 2019, with 33 undergraduate students, and has just completed its first semester. This was made possible through the collaborative efforts of the FIRE program operated through the Office of the Senior Vice President and the Provost, the Department of Physics, and the Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The research group was also greatly helped by highly-dedicated undergraduate research assistants and peer mentors. Peer Mentors are second-year FIRE students who return to serve as mentors for the first-year students in FIRE research groups, through the Teaching and Learning Transformation Center’s Academic Peer Mentoring Program. The Simulating Particle Detection will continue with current students in the fall, with the next group of first-year participants to begin in Spring 2020.

More information on the Simulating Particle Detection research group can be found on the FIRE program’s web site (http://fire.umd.edu/). Additional information on the Experimental High Energy Physics Group can be found on the Department of Physics website (https://umdphysics.umd.edu/research/research-areas/high-energy-physics.html).

Letters From a Science Giant

Auction of Notes by Stephen Hawking to Professor Emeritus Charles Misner Endow the Weber Fund with Approximately $260,000

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"Dear Charlie,” each letter begins.

They go on to talk about kids, explore recent theoretical ideas and even ask whether reimbursement for a recent trip to the University of Maryland was coming through. Job references are also a big topic—typical for correspondence between two academics.

Far from typical was their author: Stephen Hawking, the brilliant physicist who became a popular author, a science advocate and an international symbol of perseverance in the face of his crippling Lou Gehrig’s disease.

Now the letters—donated by their recipient, UMD physics Professor Emeritus Charles Misner—are being auctioned to create an endowment in the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.  

Hawking wrote the letters between 1967 and 1970. He’d hit it off with Misner, a fellow physicist studying Einstein’s theory of gravitation, while the American scientist was on a fellowship at the University of Cambridge.

Soon after, Hawking brought his family to Maryland to stay at Misner’s home and spend time at UMD. Misner’s research group was immersed in the theoretical study of gravitation, while UMD Physics Professor Joseph Weber was leading a charge to experimentally detect gravitational waves in space-time—something predicted by Einstein’s theory that even Einstein doubted could be found.

In correspondence that followed the visit, among other things, Hawking asked Misner for job referrals. “Not that I was smarter than him—but I was older,” Misner cracked in a recent interview.

Even in the late ’60s, despite the increasing physical limitations brought on by his ALS, it was clear Hawking was headed for greatness, Misner said. Through the years, the two and their families continued meeting up during fellowships, at conferences and elsewhere, although communication for Hawking became more and more labored, Misner said. Hawking died in March 2018.

Last year, when the Department of Physics was seeking funds for a memorial to Weber—who failed in his personal quest to observe gravitational waves, but laid the critical groundwork for a later experiment that would succeed—Misner remembered the letters. Departmental staff helped ransack his overstuffed office, finally turning up four letters that were auctioned by Christie's, which will create an endowment in honor of Weber to support research in gravitational physics. The auction just closed on May 23, 2019, and the letters sold for a total of 228,750 GBP.  After commissions, this should endow the Weber fund with approximately $260,000.

Original story by Chris Carroll here.

Professors Chris Monroe and Jake Taylor Describe the National Quantum Initiative in Science Magazine

F1.largeUMD physics professors Christopher Monroe and Jake Taylor, together with Michael Raymer of the University of Oregon, published an article on the National Quantum Initiative (NQI) in the May 3 issue of Science. The NQI Act, which was signed into law on December 21, 2018, lays out a plan for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Energy to work with academia and industry to further grow the quantum information science and technology (QIST) sector. Earlier this year, Monroe and Raymer wrote an article on the NQI for the February 2019 issue of Quantum Science and Technology, which details some of the events that ultimately led to this law.

The new article describes how the NQI aims to enable a so-called QIST ecosystem to study and overcome scientific challenges in this area, as well as build up a workforce educated in quantum science. Some of the possible outcomes of the NQI could include improved sensors, universally programmable quantum computers, and a more secure global communication network. The article also briefly summarizes possible risks associated with quantum research and development, including possible failure modes of the technology, as well as unforeseen ethical questions.

Monroe is the Bice-Seci Zorn Professor of Physics, a Distinguished University Professor, Fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) and the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS). He also co-founded the quantum computing company IonQ. Monroe previously advocated for a NQI through the National Photonics Initiative and testified before a joint congressional committee hearing on the topic of American Leadership in Quantum Technology in 2017. A second JQI and QuICS Fellow Carl Williams, who is Acting Director of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at NIST, provided expert testimony to congress at that same hearing.

Taylor is an adjunct professor in the Department of Physics, Co-Director of the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science and Fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. He is also the Assistant Director for Quantum Information Science at the Office of Science and Technology Policy and was recently named the Interim Director for the National Quantum Coordination Office, which was established as part of the NQI.

Raymer is a Knight Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences of the Oregon Center for Optical, Molecular and Quantum Science at the University of Oregon. Raymer has also been a strong advocate for developing a national strategy around QIST.

Three Physics Undergraduates Named 2019 Goldwater Scholars

Three University of Maryland physics undergraduates have been awarded scholarships by the Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Foundation, which encourages students to pursue advanced study and research careers in the sciences, engineering and mathematics. 

Over the last decade, UMD’s nominations yielded 33 scholarships—the most in the nation, followed by Stanford University with 29. Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Johns Hopkins University also rank in the top 10. The campus Goldwater Scholarship nominating process has been led since 2001 by Robert Infantino, associate dean of undergraduate education in the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.

John Martyn, Nicholas Poniatowski and Mark Zic were among the 496 Barry Goldwater Scholars selected from 1,223 students nominated nationally this year. All three students plan to pursue Ph.D. degrees.

Yaelle Goldschlag, a sophomore seeking double degrees in computer science and mathematics at UMD, also recieved the prestigious scholarship.

Goldwater19 John fullJohn Martyn—a junior majoring in physics and a member of the University Honors Program in the Honors College—is interested in quantum information and quantum matter. One of his interests is quantum computing, which may solve some problems far faster than classical computers.

Since 2017, Martyn has worked with Physics Assistant Professor Brian Swingle on various aspects of quantum information. Martyn developed a method to prepare approximations to thermal states, which describe quantum systems in contact with a heat bath of a given temperature. Martyn’s method may one day enable quantum computers to study quantum matter systems and models of black holes. Martyn presented this work at the 2019 American Physical Society March Meeting and the 2019 National Collegiate Research Conference.

“John really strives for perfection in his work and has already demonstrated many of the skills needed to function as an independent researcher,” Swingle said.

In addition, Martyn helped administer the high energy physics computing cluster at UMD. Working with Shabnam Jabeen, a lecturer in the Department of Physics who manages the cluster, Martyn simulated the production of theoretical particles that may result from experiments performed using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.

In summer 2018, Martyn conducted research with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) team at the California Institute of Technology, where he investigated quantum noise in LIGO’s gravitational wave detectors. Martyn constructed optical components and other electronics for a prototype detector with improved sensitivity. For this work, Martyn received the 2018 Carl Albert Rouse Undergraduate Research Fellowship from the National Society of Black Physicists.

Other awards Martyn received include the 2018 Angelo Bardasis Scholarship from the UMD Department of Physics and the 2016 Mary-Kathryn Abernathy Memorial Scholarship from the Community Foundation of Howard County.

Martyn is a member of the UMD chapter of the Society of Physics Students and the National Society of Black Physicists. He is also president of the UMD Skateboarding Club. 

Goldwater 19 Nick fullNicholas Poniatowski—a junior majoring in physics—is interested in the study of superconductivity in unconventional materials.

Superconductors are valued for their ability to conduct electricity without resistance. However, conventional superconductors must be cooled to temperatures below -200 degrees Celsius. This makes current superconductor technology impractical for real-world applications, such as smart power grids, power storage units and imaging systems.

Working with UMD Physics Professor Richard Greene at the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Poniatowski studies a family of copper-oxide materials called cuprates—high-temperature superconductors that can exhibit superconductivity closer to room temperature.

In one project, Poniatowski and his collaborators found that a particular cuprate responded in unexpected ways to variations in temperature and magnetic field. Their findings may offer clues to the origin of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates. This work will be published on May 17, 2019, in the journal Science Advances. Poniatowski presented additional results related to this work at the 2019 APS March Meeting

To further characterize high-temperature superconductors, Poniatowski also used quantum tunneling—a quantum phenomenon that can help scientists study materials at the atomic level—to probe the microscopic properties of cuprates.

In addition, Poniatowski is the sole author of an article, forthcoming in the American Journal of Physics, describing the theoretical relationship between superconductivity and the Higgs mechanism in the standard model.

“Nick is extraordinary at both theory and experiment, a combination of skills that is very rarely seen,” said Greene. “He has tremendous potential for significant experimental research contributions in the future.”

In addition to conducting research, Poniatowski served as a teaching assistant for PHYS 272: “Introductory Physics: Fields” and PHYS 441: “Introduction to Sub Atomic Physics.” During summer 2018, he served as a mentor with the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation

Goldwater 19 MarkZic fullMark Zic—a junior majoring in physics and a member of the University Honors Program in the Honors College—is interested in the study of topological materials and superconductors, which have potential applications in quantum computing.

Working with Johnpierre Paglione, professor of physics and director of the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Zic conducts quantum materials research. He helped discover and characterize a novel potential superconductor that may one day help quantum computers store information more robustly. This study was published in the journal Physical Review B in 2018. 

In addition, Zic led an effort to use the UMD Radiation Facilities to irradiate quantum materials to characterize their physical properties for potential use in quantum technologies. He helped uncover how to study disorder on the atomic level in superconducting materials, which will help scientists understand the fundamental mechanism behind superconductivity. Zic presented this work at the 2018 Canadian Institute for Advanced Research Quantum Materials Summer School and Program Meeting.

Zic also assisted in experiments using ultracold temperatures to characterize a new superconductor that survives under extremely high magnetic fields. This work has been accepted for publication in the journal Science.

“Mark has continued to surprise me with his abilities, initiative and progress,” Paglione said. “He has engaged in not one, but three graduate or even postgraduate level projects in the last year and shows no signs of slowing down. He is a true asset to our center.”

Zic currently serves as a teaching assistant for PHYS 273: “Introductory Physics: Waves” and previously served as a teaching assistant for three other physics courses. In 2018, his outstanding performance as a teaching assistant earned him an honorable mention for the UMD Department of Physics’ Ralph Myers & Friends of Physics Award. In 2017, Zic served as a mentor for Foundational Learning and Mentorship Experience (previously Science Enrichment After School), a student-led program that teaches after-school physics classes to students at Adelphi Elementary School in Adelphi, Maryland.

In addition, Zic received the 2016 Angelo Bardasis Scholarship from the UMD Department of Physics from 2016 to 2019.

The Goldwater Scholarship program was created in 1986 to identify students of outstanding ability and promise in science, engineering and mathematics, and to encourage their pursuit of advanced study and research careers. The Goldwater Foundation has honored 66 University of Maryland winners and five honorable mentions since the program’s first award was given in 1989.

Colleges and universities may submit up to four nominations annually for these awards. Goldwater Scholars receive one- or two-year scholarships that cover the cost of tuition, fees, books, and room and board up to $7,500 per year. These scholarships are a stepping-stone to future support for the students’ research careers.